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(PHP 5 >= 5.3.0, PECL intl >= 1.0.0)

grapheme_extractFunction to extract a sequence of default grapheme clusters from a text buffer, which must be encoded in UTF-8.


Procedural style

string grapheme_extract ( string $haystack , int $size [, int $extract_type [, int $start = 0 [, int &$next ]]] )

Function to extract a sequence of default grapheme clusters from a text buffer, which must be encoded in UTF-8.



String to search.


Maximum number items - based on the $extract_type - to return.


Defines the type of units referred to by the $size parameter:

  • GRAPHEME_EXTR_COUNT (default) - $size is the number of default grapheme clusters to extract.
  • GRAPHEME_EXTR_MAXBYTES - $size is the maximum number of bytes returned.
  • GRAPHEME_EXTR_MAXCHARS - $size is the maximum number of UTF-8 characters returned.


Starting position in $haystack in bytes - if given, it must be zero or a positive value that is less than or equal to the length of $haystack in bytes. If $start does not point to the first byte of a UTF-8 character, the start position is moved to the next character boundary.


Reference to a value that will be set to the next starting position. When the call returns, this may point to the first byte position past the end of the string.

Return Values

A string starting at offset $start and ending on a default grapheme cluster boundary that conforms to the $size and $extract_type specified.


Example #1 grapheme_extract() example


"a\xCC\x8A";  // 'LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE' (U+00E5) normalization form "D"
$char_o_diaeresis_nfd "o\xCC\x88"// 'LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS' (U+00F6) normalization form "D"

print urlencode(grapheme_extract$char_a_ring_nfd $char_o_diaeresis_nfd1GRAPHEME_EXTR_COUNT2));


The above example will output:


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